April 23/Pharma Law Weekly -- The effects of chronic and acute consumption of fruit- and vegetable-puree-based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and the response as a result of the eNOS G298T polymorphism are discussed in a new report. According to a study from the U.K., "The average U.K. adult consumes less than three portions of fruit and vegetables daily, despite evidence to suggest that consuming five portions daily could help prevent chronic diseases. It is recommended that fruit juice should only count as one of these portions, as juicing removes fiber and releases sugars."
"However, fruit juices contain beneficial compounds such as vitamin C and flavonoids and could be a useful source of dietary phytochemicals. Two randomized, controlled cross-over intervention studies investigating the effects of chronic and acute consumption of commercially available fruit-and vegetable-puree-based drinks (FVPD) on bioavailability, antioxidant status and CVD risk factors are described. Blood and urine samples were collected during both studies, and vascular tone was measured using laser Doppler imaging.
"In the chronic intervention study, FVPD consumption was found to significantly increase dietary carotenoids (p=0.001) and vitamin C (p=0.003). Plasma carotenoids were increased (p=0.001), but the increase in plasma vitamin C was not significant. There were no significant effects on oxidative stress, antioxidant status and other CVD risk factors.
"In the acute intervention study, FVPD were found to increase total plasma nitrate and nitrite (p=0.001) and plasma vitamin C (p=0.002). There was no effect on plasma lipids or uric acid, but there was a lower glucose and insulin peak concentration after consumption of the FVPD compared with the sugar-matched control. There was a trend toward increased vasodilation following both chronic and acute FVPD consumption.
"All volunteers were retrospectively genotyped for the eNOS G298T polymorphism and the effect of genotype on the measurements is discussed. Overall, there was a non-significant trend toward increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation following both acute and chronic FVPD consumption," wrote T.W. George and colleagues, University of Reading.
The researchers concluded, "However, there was a significant time x treatment effect (p <0.05) of acute FVPD consumption in individuals with the GG variant of the eNOS gene."
George and colleagues published their study in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ("Effects of chronic and acute consumption of fruit- and vegetable-puree-based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and the response as a result of the eNOS G298T polymorphism." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2009;68(2):148-61).
For more information, contact T.W. George, The University of Reading, Dept. of Food Biosciences, School of Chemistry, Food Biosciences and Pharmacy, Whiteknights, Reading, Berks, U.K.
From the April 27, 2009, Prepared Foods E-dition