Ingredient Formulation Tools
Gum ControlTracy Mosteller, PhD, group leader of beverage ingredients at Danisco USA Inc., explained the functions of gums commonly used in food and beverage systems.
Locust bean gum is used mainly for viscosity and syneresis control. Only slightly cold-soluble, it must be heated to between 75° and 85°C for full hydration. Since locust bean gum is non-ionic, it is relatively salt-tolerant, with an effective pH range of 4 to 10. Usage levels vary between 0.05% and 0.2%.
Guar gum is used primarily as a thickening agent, with a pH range of 4 to 10. Upon heating, guar gum will generate its maximum viscosity, but the viscosity at 25°C is adequate to provide good mouthfeel. Therefore, guar gum is an excellent choice for cold-soluble beverage applications. A typical usage level is 0.05% to 0.20%.
Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight polymer produced by the bacterial fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris. This gum is an anionic polymer soluble in both cold and hot water, exhibiting pseudoplastic (shear-thinning) behavior over a pH range of 1.0 to 13.0, making it particularly useful in low-pH applications. The polymer is resistant to prolonged shear and high temperatures.
Xanthan gum can be used effectively in combination with galactomannans. Locust bean and guar gums react synergistically with xanthan gum. The combination of gums produces a significantly greater effect than the gums individually. A typical usage range is 0.05% to 0.25%.
Pectin is commercially derived from citrus peel or apple pomace and useful for fruit suspension. In beverage applications, pectin typically is used to provide viscosity and protein stability at low-pH ranges. Usage levels range from 0.3% to 0.4%.
Carrageenan is extracted from red seaweed and used in beverage applications to provide viscosity and weak fluid gel structures. Carrageenans are milk reactive, and can provide a three-dimensional matrix that can suspend solids like cocoa particles. Usage levels are very low compared to other hydrocolloids at 0.02% to 0.04%. The effective pH range for carrageenan is 4 to 10.
“Structure and Function of Food Hydrocolloids,” Becky Bingman, Danisco Textural Ingredients, Rebecca. Bingman@danisco.com, www.danisco.com.
Gum GalaMaureen Akins, food scientist at TIC Gums, explained the origin, structure and functionality of gum Arabic, modified gum Arabic and cellulose derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC).
Gum Arabic, grown mainly in Africa, is derived from two different species of acacia. Acacia Senegal provides an excellent emulsifier; however, it is labor-intensive, has volatile pricing and a limited growing area. Acacia seyal requires less labor for production, has pricing that is not as volatile, a wider growing area and provides a short-term emulsifier.
Modification of gum Arabic by octensylsuccinic anhydride (OSAN) provides a better emulsifier than Acacia senegal. The modification is designed to address the security of the supply and reduce costs. Modified gum Arabic is more widely available, is 50% less costly than gum Arabic and costs 30% less than modified food starch. It is suitable for all emulsions, including those with high oil levels. There are no concerns with gelation in modified gum Arabic.
Carboxymethylcellulose, known as CMC or cellulose gum, is anionic with a wide range of molecular weights. It makes a crystal solution in hot or cold water. It is functional as an all-purpose thickener in syrups and toppings, baked goods, sauces, cheese sauces and tortillas.
Methylcellulose and HPMC are separate products with similar characteristics (heat gelation and viscosity-building). They are non-ionic, cold-water soluble, gel with heat, and good film formers. Their applications include extruded products, fried foods, marinades and sauces, pie fillings, structured potato products and whipped toppings.
In conclusion, gum Arabic is a multifunctional, all-purpose emulsifier, spray-dried flavor carrier, binder, foam stabilizer and source of dietary fiber. Modified gum Arabic is a very efficient emulsifier that is readily available and cost-effective. Cellulose derivatives are excellent thickeners, with unique gelation properties.
“Hydrocolloid Overview: Gum Arabic, Modified Gum Arabic and Cellulose Derivatives,” Francis Bowman, TIC Gums Inc., firstname.lastname@example.org, www.ticgums.com.
Lipid-based Flavor Delivery Systems for Baked GoodsInformation on lipid-based flavor delivery systems, their foundations and functional benefits in baking applications was presented by Peter Holocher, product development manager for SensoryEffects™, a specialty division of Loders Croklaan.
Such delivery systems are multi-functional inclusions that provide distinctive flavors and aromas, appetizing colors and consistent textures—all in one piece. Customization allows for signature food products to be created with repeatable ease. Besides delivering flavor, color, aroma and texture, these fat-based systems also offer product developers manufacturing advantages like uniform blending into mixes and doughs, and ease of weighing, handling and clean-up. Additionally, lipid-based flavor delivery systems that include spices and seasonings in their formulas will not dust, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination and waste.
Lipid-based flavor delivery systems are available in particulate, granule, powder or flake form. They are inclusions, but also much more, because they have a targeted release based on the melt-point of the fat matrix. Many carbohydrate, gum or protein inclusions look great visually, but experience a dramatic decline in flavor/aroma delivery over the shelflife of a product.
“It's very clear that there are significant flavoring demands when you talk about bakery,” says Holocher. “High temps and shear make bakery particularly brutal when it comes to flavor release and retention.” Flavor release can be improved by physical barrier protection and enhanced mouthfeel from the fat system. To intensify flavor perception, it is best to maximize fat/flavor potentiation.
Aroma profiles can be more tightly controlled over the shelflife of a finished product by preventing rapid aroma chemical evaporation and degradation. Negative flavor interactions from vitamins and minerals can be overcome by masking.
Such delivery systems simplify processing by reducing the number of flavoring ingredients and by using synergies between other flavors in dough. Other options include replacement of hard-to-use ingredients (like fenugreek and honey).
These systems allow product developers to customize their creations via many pathways: flavor, color, aroma and texture, making them a very flexible tool for product developers.
“Lipid-based Flavor Delivery Systems in Baked Goods,” Peter Holocher, LodersCroklaan, email@example.com, www.sensoryeffects.com
Protection for and with Antioxidants
Benefits of antioxidant nutraceutical compounds are receiving considerable media attention. In turn, food formulators are incorporating these compounds into their products at an increasing rate. Antioxidants are believed to benefit many physiological systems; however, misinformation and mishandling can compromise their functionality. Factors pertaining to the addition of antioxidants to food and beverage systems, and those that should be considered in their formulation were presented by Hugh Lippman, PhD, senior product innovation scientist, Seltzer Nutritional Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif.
Antioxidants inhibit or terminate free-radical propagation and have pro-oxidant potential as well as other physiological and food functions. Common antioxidants include alpha-lipoic acid, beta-carotene, coenzyme Q10, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. These compounds may be delivered in various forms including: in their raw chemical state, as a derivative of the raw chemical, as a powder or as a standardized extract. Processing conditions and the chemical nature of the food matrix may not only affect nutrient stability, but also nutrient bioavailability and its sensory characteristics. However, various methods can be applied as a means of protecting these nutrients. For instance, encapsulation enhances mineral and botanical solubility, protects nutrient aesthetics and protects the nutrient from the environment. Oxygen-impermeable packaging or chelating agents may be used to reduce nutrient oxidation. Essentially, nutrient integrity can be optimized by minimizing processing time and exposure to environmental conditions, and by maximizing packaging properties.
“Antioxidant Fortification,” Hugh Lippman, PhD, Seltzer Nutritional Technologies, hugh@seltzernutritional tech.com, www.seltzernutritionaltech.com.