August 26/Food & Farm Week -- "The effects of non-interesterified (non-in-es) and chemically interesterified (in-es) cottonseed oil (CO), palm oil (PO) and CO:PO blend (1:1, weight basis) and brewer's spent grain (BSG) on quality of cookies were studied. Incorporation of non-in-es and in-es CO and CO:PO blend improved the nutritional value of the cookies by altering the fatty acid composition," investigators in Ankara, Turkey, report.
"The experimental shortenings had zero-trans fatty acids (TFA) and considerably higher linoleic acid contents than hydrogenated shortening (HS). In-es PO and CO:PO blend samples had lower solid fat content than their non-in-es counterparts, and this resulted in higher spread ratios in in-es incorporated cookies. As expected, addition of BSG significantly increased (P < 0.05) the total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cookies. Cookies with modified fatty acid composition and 4.4-fold higher TDF have been produced by using non-in-es and in-es CO and CO:PO with 15% BSG, without significant adverse effects on sensory properties.
"PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Hydrogenated shortenings (HSs) are the most important source of fat in cookies and might have high proportions of trans fatty acids (TFAs). A high intake of TFA is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and the intake should be reduced to minimize health risks. In this work, the production of zero-trans interesterified and non-interesterified shortenings and their utilization in high-fiber cookies were investigated. The results indicated that some of the experimental in-es and non-in-es shortenings and 15% brewer's spent grain could be used for production of cookies with zero TFA and higher unsaturated fatty acids and total dietary fiber contents without detrimentally affecting their sensory properties," wrote S. Ozturk and colleagues, Hacettepe University.
The researchers concluded, "The in-es shortening incorporated cookies had higher spread ratios and color values than their non-in-es counterparts."
Ozturk and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Food Lipids ("Effects of Zero-Trans Interesterified and Non-Interesterified Shortenings and Brewer's Spent Grain on Cookie Quality." Journal of Food Lipids, 2009;16(3):297-313).
For additional information, contact H. Koksel, Hacettepe University, Dept. of Food Engineering, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
From the August 31, 2009, Prepared Foods E-dition