"Nutritionists always tout the importance of breakfast, but now we understand just how powerful choosing to eat lean protein, like pork sausage or ham, at breakfast can be for teen breakfast skippers in particular," said study lead Dr. Heather Leidy, assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology at the University of Missouri. "Based on this research, taking the time each morning to eat a healthy breakfast -- one consisting of about 40% of calories from carbohydrates and 40% of calories from protein -- leads to reduced snacking later in the day thanks to the satiating effects of protein early in the day."
As many as 20-30% of adolescents in the U.S. do not eat breakfast at all and are dubbed "breakfast skippers," a habit associated with excess body weight, according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The teens who were assigned to eat a high protein breakfast experienced a decreased intake of approximately 400 calories later in the day. However, those who continued to skip breakfast as well as those who ate the same number of calories for breakfast but had much less protein did not reduce daily intake. This 400 calorie decrease in the high protein breakfast group was due to voluntarily eating fewer high-fat/high-sugar snacks in the late afternoon and evening; that is, the teens just chose to eat less on their own without any external restrictions or guidance to do so.
Both breakfast groups, totaling 54 teenage boys and girls, consumed 350-calorie meals. However, the lower protein group consumed high carbohydrate ready-to-eat cereals whereas the high protein group consumed meals containing foods such as pork and egg burritos, lean ham with protein-rich pancakes and raspberry syrup, or protein-rich blueberry waffles with syrup and a pork sausage patty. Both had the same amount of fat (about 20% of total calories) in their breakfasts.
These new findings in teen breakfast skippers is consistent with past research in adult men that demonstrated the benefits of including lean pork in three daily meals, not just at breakfast, as a way to reduce late-night desires to eat, increase feelings of fullness, and decrease distracting thoughts about food. This new study also is consistent with a similar study conducted by the same University of Missouri researchers suggesting a breakfast high in protein significantly improves appetite control and reduces unhealthy, evening snacking for overweight or obese adolescent females.
"Increasing evidence suggests that incorporating lean pork into the diet can help with appetite control and body weight management, while also providing key nutrients that growing teens and adults alike need in their daily diet," added Leidy.